Wednesday, May 25, 2016

The Truth About Red Pepper Flakes

"Adding red pepper flakes to your chickens’ feed will increase egg production."  - Statement found on popular Facebook chicken forum on April 21, 2016.

Unfortunately, the statement that "red pepper flakes will increase your hens egg production" is largely urban legend.  Scientifically, I am unable to see what nutritional and physiological mechanism would be used to rationalize that hypothesis. 

Interestingly, I found a peer reviewed paper written in 2012 titled   "Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens" by Huaqiaqng Li et al.

The results showed no difference in egg laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to the inclusion of red pepper flakes in the diet versus a control group.  This result was similar to other previous studies by Gurbuz et. al (2003) and Samli et al (2005). 

Interestingly, in this experiment red pepper powder did have a significant effect on egg weight compared to a control group. The authors did not hypothesize on why this is so.  Until repeated in other experiments this result while interesting is far from fact.  

While red pepper flakes do not change the performance they can affect the color of the yolk because of the cartenoids (i.e. pigments) in the flakes. Specifically, feeding red pepper flakes to your hens at a concentration between 0.5 - 2% will produce a red-orange colored yolk (Note: birds do not sense “hot” or “spicy.”  This is why you can add cayenne pepper to your bird seed to discourage squirrels etc. from eating the bird seeds). 

Answer provided by Maurice Pitesky DVM, MPVM, DACVPM
Veterinarian/Assistant Specialist in Cooperative Extension
Poultry Health and Food Safety Epidemiology
School of Veterinary Medicine
University of California

Once again, our team of experts have deemed there is no scientific proof or research that proves adding red pepper flakes to chickens’ feed increases egg production. ~ Andy Schneider (The Chicken Whisperer)

Monday, April 25, 2016

The Truth About Mites

The Truth About Mites

" Mites live happily on the vents and the warm undersides of chickens.  They don’t ordinarily stake out a dark crack and wait patiently to pounce at night." 
" If there are mites or lice in a chicken coop, they are living on the chickens."  - Both statements found on a popular chicken related blog on April 24, 2016.

The two statements above indicate the flock owner’s outright misunderstanding of the basic information that is out there about mites.  There are three types of mites that are detrimental to backyard chicken flocks.  The one that we can take out of the equation is the scaley leg mite as it is microscopic and is not the mite that is being addressed in the statements above.  That leaves the Red Mite (a.k.a. Chicken Mite) and the Northern Fowl Mite.  The Northern Fowl Mite lives directly on the chicken and the entire life cycle is spent on the chicken.  That means they do not seek out cracks in the coop environment in which to live.  They prefer to live and breed on the birds themselves.  Yes, they are seen most often in the vent area or even in thickly feathered areas in the upper thigh and breast once the vent feathers are thinned beyond repair.

As for the Red Mite, they also feed on the chicken but can be found in the environment of the coop. The mites retreat from the birds after a blood meal; they usually feed on the birds at night, so look carefully when cleaning in the environment.  Look under caked litter or in the bedding.  Most often they seek out cracks in the wood which is why I recommend sealing wood surfaces to reduce harborage for the Red Mite when it is not on the bird feeding.  To find these mites, you can go out into the coop in the evening after the chickens have gone to roost and look at the bird with a flashlight.  Not only will they feed at the juncture of the scales and feathers on the legs, but elsewhere on the birds.  These mites look like the Northern Fowl mite except after a blood meal when they turn red.

During your weekly cleanout you should move and clean equipment in the coop to disrupt hiding spaces.  If you have drapes covering nest boxes, set them up in a way so that they are easy to remove and wash on a monthly basis.  During your annual spring cleaning every inch of the coop will need to be scrubbed with soap and water.  Murphy’s oil soap or Safer Soap are both insecticidal and work well for the cleaning step that precedes the disinfection step.

Before making broad statements about mites, make sure that you identify which type of mite to which you are making reference to ensure that your statements are accurate.

Response provided by Dr. Brigid McCrea, Ph.D.
Associate Professor and Extension Poultry Specialist
Delaware State University

* Once again, information found on a popular chicken blog has been deemed chicken poop. Just because a chicken blog is popular does not mean the information on the blog is accurate. How many people have read this blog, and are now spreading this misinformation on other chicken blogs and forums? Gee, if I had a nickle... ~Andy Schneider (The Chicken Whisperer)

Monday, April 18, 2016

The Truth About the Effects of Probiotics Given to Baby Chicks

"Giving probiotics to baby chicks reduces the risk of Salmonella in eggs and other diseases later in life."  - Statement found on a popular chicken related blog on March 22, 2016.

Not all of what is suggested in this statement is entirely wrong.  The blog page where this statement was pulled from does a good job of referring the reader to sound research on feeding probiotics to chickens.  However, where the blogger falls down is that they refer the reader to research on broiler chickens and not laying hens.  The statement above was specifically targeted to laying hens because it mentions eggs.  Yes, giving broiler chicks probiotics does help them, but a laying hen is a completely different management system and therefore their level of exposure, over a much longer lifetime, creates a completely different situation.  You cannot compare apples to oranges and needless to say, by throwing in backyard management systems you have tossed in a pineapple for comparison.

I will agree that giving chicks probiotics does help them to some degree in their gut microbiome.  You may also see improvements in their feed conversion and growth rates.  However, broiler chickens are raised to about 6-8 weeks whereas a laying hen may stay on this earth for years.  During that time, any protection that could be imparted by giving that laying hen chick probiotics is gone before it even reaches the age of laying its first egg. 

The only other thought process here is that you may wish to repeatedly dose the chicken with probiotics.  The beneficial effect of repeated exposure of probiotics for the long-term has yet to be proven.  Laying hens, with their longer lifespan, can be repeatedly exposed to Salmonella (there are several hundred strains to choose from) and each time they will need to eliminate it from their bodies.  Keeping your chickens as a backyard flock exposes them to stressors that are not the same as commercial birds.  Therefore, the performance of any probiotic used in commercial conditions will not apply to backyard birds unless specific research is done with the said probiotic on multiple backyard flocks to determine an average response.  So that should explain why I mention comparing apples to oranges, and even pineapples, above.

It takes a large dose of Salmonella to infect an adult bird.  And most often if a chick is infected, the likelihood that the chick is going to clear its system of Salmonella in a matter of a few weeks is far greater.  This means that, although it can happen, it is less likely that a chicken is going to shed Salmonella for many, many weeks or even a few months.  So by giving the chick probiotics, you are likely imparting protection for only a few weeks, at a time when the gut microbiome is just developing.  Yes, at that time, when their immune system is not as strong as an adult bird, you want to impart as much protection as possible and probiotics are a good idea.  But to claim that by giving a chick probiotics you are going to impart protection for the lifetime of the hen is wrong.  Since a healthy bird with a good functioning immune system can potentially remove Salmonella by itself then probiotics may not be needed.  If you are dosing a bird with probiotics as it is trying to eliminate any Salmonella from its body using its normal immune functions, then the real question becomes the following:  Are the probiotics doing the heavy lifting or is it the immune system doing its job?
Probiotics are likely displacing organisms within the gut that are moderately affecting things like feed conversion or nutrient availability.  It is the hope of probiotics to displace pathogens, which can, like other bacteria or microbiota, access the gut of the bird through different pathways.  Your goal as a chicken owner is to reduce the exposure of your birds to these different pathways.  Knowing that as your bird ages, they are being repeatedly exposed to different organisms, means that you will need to use good biosecurity and stay on top of your good management practices.  Probiotics are nice to have on hand, but are by no means a requirement to successful chicken keeping.

Unfortunately, the quote above also states that the risk of salmonella in eggs will be reduced.  No reputable research to that effect (within the egg) has been shown.  Sometimes research finds slight reductions in bacteria levels by feeding probiotics, and they may be statistically significant, however, the actual numbers are only slight and not at all meaningful for you, the backyard chicken owner.  Significance and meaningful can be two very different things.  You may see a reduction, but if the levels are not enough to have any real, true meaning in real-world circumstances, then one must understand that probiotics are not a replacement for using sound management practices within your flock.  I emphasize that bacteria on the inside of the egg in the discussion can be detrimental especially in sauces or dishes that are not cooked.  You can reduce bacterial levels on the outside of the shell which is good, but washing eggs before eating them can also do good in reducing bacterial levels.

Lastly, the quote also states that by giving probiotics, a reduced risk will be imparted against “…and other diseases later in life.”  This statement is too broad.  There is no indication of what diseases are being referred to and so that makes this part of the statement a red herring. The real topic being discussed is the Salmonella level in eggs being affected by probiotics given to the birds in the chick life stage.  As was stated previously, when birds are exposed to the right dose, or other stressors, probiotics given as a chick will not impart protection at later life stages.

Beware of broad claims when you are shopping the internet for information.  Most times, if it sounds too good to be true, then it often is.  Thankfully, in this case, we have teased apart the truth from the myth in the aforementioned statement so that you can better approach this topic with science in mind.

Response provided by Dr. Brigid McCrea, Ph.D.
Associate Professor and Extension Poultry Specialist
Delaware State University

* This is another fine example of how bad information can quickly spread across social media. Example:  How many people read this blog? How many times are readers now going to post on other chicken related blogs and forums, "Giving probiotics to baby chicks reduces the risks of Salmonella in eggs," spreading the bad information even further? Reading a study is one thing, having the knowledge to understand what the study means is another. ~ Andy Schneider (The Chicken Whisperer)

Wednesday, April 6, 2016

The Truth About Bird Flu in Backyard Birds

 "Backyard birds are more immune to the Bird Flu than factory birds. Really not a worry if your birds free range most of the time."  - Statement found on Chicken Whisperer Facebook page in response to information posted about the dangers of backyard bird feeders on March 26 2016.

There are no breeds or strains of domestic poultry that are resistant or immune to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).  That being said there are breeds (most famously the Egyptian Fayoumi) that are known to have greater disease resistance than other breeds.  For example, the Fayoumi breed has greater resistance to coccidiosis but conversely they appear more susceptible to infectious bursal disease.  Fayoumi also have lower hatchability rates.  The point being that there is no perfect breed or strain of chicken.  Researchers may identify local breeds of chickens or cross-breed different breeds of chickens that have unique traits including disease resistance, but to believe that backyard and free-range birds offer a "genetic panacea" that would allow us to ignore biosecurity as the primary method of reducing mortality related to HPAI is unfortunately not accurate.

Answer provided by Maurice Pitesky DVM, MPVM, DACVPM
Veterinarian/Assistant Specialist in Cooperative Extension
Poultry Health and Food Safety Epidemiology
School of Veterinary Medicine
University of California

Wednesday, February 24, 2016

The Truth About Diatomaceous Earth as a Dewormer

"Diatomaceous Earth is an all-natural dewormer for chickens."  - Statement found on popular Facebook Chicken group page posted on February 3, 2016.

While the benefits of DE for ectoparasite control are well known and studied there is less research on the benefits of including DE as a part of a balanced ration for internal parasite control.  There is one paper published in 2011 in the journal Poultry Science that showed that a diet supplemented with 2% DE was effective in reducing some internal parasites in some breeds of chickens.  Interestingly, there was also a corresponding increase in weight and egg production and quality.  While this study did show some benefits for dietary DE it is important to focus on good biosecurity and husbandry practices which are the most effective control methods for internal and external parasites.

For more information, check out this research on the Effect of Diatomaceous Earth on parasite load, egg production, and egg quality of free-range organic laying hens.

Response provided by Amy Murillo, a PhD candidate at UC Riverside in California.

* It's important to note that while the birds in the study did have a smaller load of worms, they still in fact had worms. ~ Andy Schneider (The Chicken Whisperer)

Thursday, January 28, 2016

The Truth About Grit

"Provide quality grit and there is no need to worm your chickens."  - Statement made by a fan on the Chicken Whisperer Facebook page posted on January 14, 2016.

Grit is not a poultry de-wormer.  Grit consists of small stones that are consumed by chickens to help with the grinding up of whole grains in the gizzard.  The gizzard is a very strong muscle with a tough inner lining.  The grit simply adds surface area to the grinding that takes place in the gizzard to make this process more efficient.  With most poultry feeds today, there are no whole grains and so grit is not necessary.  If you do not feed whole grains, then not purchasing grit is a cost savings to the chicken owner.  Chickens, if allowed to range in the yard or the driveway, often pick up small stones and consume them.  You will also see smaller bird species doing the same thing (i.e. sparrows).  Grit eventually wears down to the point that it is small enough to leave the gizzard.  It then passes out in the feces.  Grit is not the same as oyster shell.  Oyster shell imparts additional calcium to the bird’s diet and can strengthen eggshells during times of stress when birds may be laying weaker eggshells. 

At some point, someone suggested that grit scrapes the worms or damages the worms to the point of causing them to be released from the body.  There is no evidence that grit is effective in this way for poultry.  Some backyard chicken owners thought that grit was similar to food grade diatomaceous earth (DE), which is only slightly effective against worms.  Since both DE and grit are both come from the ground, at some point some people equated the two as having similar uses.  It should also be noted that on the internet, pumpkin seed research on small ruminants, is being purported as a good, natural de-wormer for chickens.  There has been no research done on the effectiveness of pumpkin seeds as a de-wormer in chickens. 

There is only one over-the-counter chicken de-wormer on the market and the active ingredient is piperazine.  The brand names vary, but the active ingredient is the same.  It is added to the water, not the feed.  There are no approved over-the-counter poultry de-wormers approved for the feed in the U.S.  Piperazine will not kill worms.  It simply makes them sleepy and hopefully they will let go of the lining of the intestines.  If, and when, they let go, they are pushed out of the body through normal peristaltic action. That is why it is suggested that birds receive a good dose of the medication followed a few hours later by a thorough cleaning of the coop bedding because the feces are likely worm-laden. The birds receive a good dose by taking their normal water away for a few hours (depending of course on the time of year in case temperatures are excessively high) and then put the medicated water into the coop.  Keep the medicated water in the coop for a few hours and then take it out.  Wash the waterer out with soap and water and then refill the waterer with fresh, clean, cool water.  Worms can still move in the feces and it is important that the feces are cleaned up as the chickens are likely to be attracted to the movement in the droppings.  Re-infection via the fecal-oral route is a common tactic used by internal parasites to ensure that they survive and pass along their genes to the next generation. 

That does not mean that there are no other products out there.  Some are herbal with no scientific proof of the product’s effectiveness in different types of poultry under different housing conditions.  Be wary of claims that point toward non-poultry research or claims that they are traditionally accepted as de-wormers.  If the research has not been done with regard to 1) effectiveness against different types of poultry internal parasites, and 2) withdrawal periods for meat and eggs, then you are making a very large assumption that the product will work in your situation.  

There are products out there that are acceptable to give to poultry with a veterinarian’s prescription and oversight.  Prevention is the key as most backyard flock owners do not want to give their chickens too many drugs.  Many small flock owners get a small flock because they believe that commercial production practices already use too many chemicals. Commercial producers cannot afford to give their chickens medications unnecessarily and so use biosecurity to their advantage as a preventative measure.  They also do not expose their birds to sources of internal parasites.  Some small flock owners expose their birds to wild birds and insects which can either be intermediate hosts of internal parasites or cause infection directly.  Therefore many small flock owners just want to be able to give drugs to their flock monthly to prevent worms.  This may lead to a build-up of resistant worms, potentially reducing the effectiveness of the only over-the-counter product currently available in the U.S.  To avoid giving your small flock drugs unnecessarily, it is recommended that a sample of fresh feces be taken to your veterinarian to have fecal flotation test be done.  This test determines if worm eggs are in the feces and a microscope is needed for this examination.  Only if your chickens have evidence of worms should you consider treating them with piperazine.  The sheep and goat producers worldwide are currently experiencing difficulties with a lack of available drugs and internal parasites that are resistant to the drugs that remain available.  No one wants a similar situation to occur for small flock owners. 

Response provided by Dr. Brigid McCrea, Ph.D.
Associate Professor and Extension Poultry Specialist

Delaware State University

Friday, December 4, 2015

The Truth About Getting Sick with Salmonella

"People get sick from Salmonella because they have no immunity to it. Getting Salmonella will help build my immunity to Salmonella so in the future I won't get sick from it."  - Statement posted as a reply to a post on the Chicken Whisperer Facebook page on October 17, 2015.

Getting an infection with Salmonella does not mean you will never get an infection with Salmonella again. Some immunity may be formed after infection with the germ, but it may not be effective if you subsequently receive a high dose of the germ and immunity may not last your whole life.  Also, there are many different types of Salmonella that can make you sick, so it is possible you may not get infected by the same type. Salmonella can cause serious illness or even death. Children younger than age 5, people older than 65, and those with weakened immune systems are at a higher risk for serious infection. Advice from CDC to help prevent getting sick with Salmonella can be found at:

Answer provided by Megin Nichols, DVM, MPH, DACVPM
Enteric Zoonoses Team Lead
Outbreak Response and Prevention Branch
Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention